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Rhodiola rosea: Bibliography and References
Ultimate & Complete List of Scientific Articles (Abstracts).
Experimental and Clinical data.
The list was updated in November, 2006

2006

2006

Asian Nat Prod Res. 2006 Jan-Mar;8(1-2):159-65.

Cao LL, Du GH, Wang MW.

Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China.
The effect of salidroside on cell damage induced by glutamate and intracellular free calcium in PC12 cells.

Salidroside (Sald), was extracted from Rhodiola rosea L, a traditional Chinese medicine which has been used for long time for anti-aging, anti-cancer and anti-oxidative stress etc. In present experiment, salidroside could protect the PC12 cell against injuries caused by exposure of PC12 cells to 2 mmol/L glutamate for 15 min followed by incubation with serum-free medium for 24 h, which resembled the excitotoxin in vivo system. Furthermore, saldroside could decrease the [Ca2+]i of PC12 cells in Mg2+-free Hanks' solution and D-Hanks' solution but there was no effect on basal [Ca2+]i in Hanks' solution. The studies also indicated that salidroside inhibited the increases of [Ca2+]i induced by KCl and glutamate. In conclusion, salidroside may protect PC12 cell against glutamate excitotoxic damage through suppressing the excessive entry of Ca2+ and the release of the calcium stores.

2006

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15(3):425-32.

Kwon YI, Jang HD, Shetty K.

Laboratory of Food Technology, Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.
Evaluation of Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola rosea for management of type II diabetes and hypertension.

The current study, we investigated 2 species of the genus Rhodiola for the inhibition of alpha-amylase,alpha-glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Water extracts of Rhodiola crenulata had the highest alpha-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50,98.1 microg total phenolic /ml) followed by ethanol extract of R.crenulata (IC50, 120.9 microg total phenolic/ml) and ethanol extract of R.rosea (IC50, 173.4 microg total phenolic /ml). Ethanol R.rosea (IC50, 44.7 microg total phenolic/ml), water extract of R.rosea (IC50, 52.3 microg total phenolic/ml), water extract of R.crenulata (IC50, 60.3 microg total phenolic /ml) and ethanol extract of R.crenulata (IC50, 60.2 microg total phenolic/ml) also showed significant alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracts was compared to standard tyrosol, which was significantly detected in the extracts using HPLC. Tyrosol had strong alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50, 70.8 microg total phenolic/ml) but did not have any inhibitory effect on the alpha-amylase activity. Results suggested that alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of both Rhodiola extracts correlated to the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of the extracts. The ability of the above Rhodiola extracts to inhibit rabbit lung angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) was investigated. The ethanol extracts of R.rosea had the highest ACE inhibitory activity (38.5 %) followed by water extract of R.rosea (36.2 %) and R.crenulata (15.4 %).

2005

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005 Nov;36(6):820-3, 846.

Effect of salidroside on bone marrow cell cycle and expression of apoptosis-related proteins in bone marrow cells of bone marrow depressed anemia mice.

Zhang XS, Zhu BD, Hung XQ, Chen YF.
Department of Histology, Embryology and Neurobiology, West China School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of salidroside on bone marrow cell cycle and expression of apoptosis-related proteins in bone marrow cells (BMCs) of bone marrow depressed anemia mice, and to explore its mechanism for hematopoietic regulation. METHODS: The effect of salidroside on peripheral blood cells, BMCs, and bone marrow cell cycle in bone marrow depressed anemia mice was detected by automatic blood cell analysator, white blood count and flow cytometry (FCM)respectively,and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax of BMCs was detected by immunohistochemistry method simultaneously. RESULTS: It was found that low-dose and high-dose salidroside obviously elevated white blood cells and BMCs, that low-dose salidroside significantly increased platelets and promoted G0/G1-S phase and S-G2/M phase transition of BMCs, that high-dose salidroside markedly promoted S-G2/M phase transition of BMCs, and that both low-dose and high-dose salidroside obviously elevated the proliferation index and the ratio of G2/M phase cells. Additionally, the expression of Bcl-2 in BMCs was increased in low-dose and high-dose salidroside groups, especially the increase was significant in the low-dose salidroside group; moreover, the expression of Bax in BMCs was reduced significantly in both low-dose and high-dose salidroside groups. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that salidroside may promote the recovery of hematopoietic function of the bone marrow depressed anemia in mice by ending off G0/G1-phase arrest, accelerating G0/G1-S phase and S-G2/M phase transition, up-regulating Bcl-2 expression, down-regulating Bax expression, and inhibiting BMCs apoptosis.

2005

Phytother Res. 2005 Sep;19(9):740-3.

Ming DS, Hillhouse BJ, Guns ES, Eberding A, Xie S, Vimalanathan S, Towers GH.

Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Bioactive compounds from Rhodiola rosea (Crassulaceae).

The methanol extract of the underground part of Rhodiola rosea was found to show inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a 95% ethanol extract from the stems of R. rosea led to the isolation of five compounds: gossypetin-7-O-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), rhodioflavonoside (2), gallic acid (3), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid (4) and p-tyrosol (5). Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with those of the literature. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antibacterial and antiprostate cancer cell activities. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited activity against Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 50 microg/mL and 100 microg/mL, respectively. Cytotoxicity studies of 1 and 2 also displayed activity against the prostate cancer cell line with IC(50) values of 50 microg/mL and 80 microg/mL, respectively. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.)

2005

J Strength Cond Res. 2005 May;19(2):358-63.

Colson SN, Wyatt FB, Johnston DL, Autrey LD, Fitzgerald YL, Earnest CP.

Department of Health Sciences, McLennan Community College, Waco, Texas 76708, USA.
Cordyceps sinensis- and Rhodiola rosea-based supplementation in male cyclists and its effect on muscle tissue oxygen saturation.

Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) and Rhodiola rosea (Rr) are herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a multitude of ailments as well as to enhance performance. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of a formula containing Cs and Rr (Cs-Rr) on circulatory dynamics, specifically muscle tissue oxygen saturation (Sto(2)), in male subjects during maximal exercise. This study followed a double blind, randomized, placebo-treatment, pre-post test design. Capsules were administered to 8 subjects who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The treatment group received Cs-Rr, and the control group received a placebo. All subjects performed 2 exercise stress tests to volitional fatigue on a cycle load ergometer. There were no significant (p </= 0.05) differences in Sto(2) slope, Sto(2) threshold (Sto(2T)), Vo(2)max, ventilatory threshold (V(T)), or time to exhaustion (T(E)) between or within the treatment or control group. In conclusion, Cs-Rr did not significantly enhance Sto(2).

2005

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2005 May;25(5):445-8.

Li J, Fan WH, Ao H.

Department of Cardiac Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai.
Effect of rhodiola on expressions of Flt-1, KDR and Tie-2 in rats with ischemic myocardium.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of rhodiola on expression of vascular endothelial growth factors receptors (VEGFR) in myocardium of rats after myocardial infarction. METHODS: On the basis of successful establishment of myocardial infarction rat model, the experimental animals were divided into the model group, the rhodiola group, the positive control group and the sham-operated group, they were sacrificed after 6 weeks feeding. Their hearts were resected and embedded in paraffin to make sections with standard immunohistochemistry stain. Then the stained slices were analyzed in the IMS cell imagine analysis system using immunohistochemical quantitative analysis software. The field of vision of left ventricular myocardial tissue in three sites selected from the marginal area of infarction in each slice were determined, the mean value was then converted to positive area. Meanwhile, the mean optical density (OD) was calculated and the various expressions of VEGFR, i.e. Flt-1, KDR and angiopoietin receptor (Tie-2) were measured. RESULTS: The expressions of Flt-1 and Tie-2 in myocardial tissue were significantly increased in the rhodiola treated group after treatment, showing significant difference as compared with those in the positive control group and the model group (P < 0.05). The expression of KDR in myocardium after rhodiola intervention was higher than that in the sham-operated and nonintervened group (P < 0.05), but insignificantly different to that in the positive control group and model group. CONCLUSION: Rhodiola could improve angiogenesis to ameliorate myocardial ischemia by regulating the expression of Flt-1 and Tie-2 in ischemic myocardium.

2004

Biofactors. 2004;20(3):147-59.

De Sanctis R, De Bellis R, Scesa C, Mancini U, Cucchiarini L, Dacha M.

Istituto di Chimica Biologica "Giorgio Fornaini", Universita degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Urbino (PU), Italy.
In vitro protective effect of Rhodiola rosea extract against hypochlorous acid-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes.

Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is a plant living at high altitudes in Europe and Asia. Its roots have long been used in the traditional medical system of these geographical areas to increase the organism resistance to physical stress; today, it has become an important component of many dietary supplements. In this study we investigate the antioxidant capacity of the R. rosea aqueous extract evaluating its ability to counteract some of the main damages induced by hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a powerful oxidant generated by activated phagocytes, to human erythrocytes. Ascorbic acid was used as a reference substance because of its physiological HOCl-scavenging ability. Our study demonstrates that R. rosea is able to significantly protect, in a dose-dependent manner, human RBC from glutathione (GSH) depletion, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) inactivation and hemolysis induced by the oxidant. Furthermore, we demonstrate that R. rosea aqueous extract acts from the inside of the erythrocyte suggesting a probable involving of cell components. The protection on GSH afforded by the R. rosea extract with respect to ascorbic acid, occurred also if added 2 or 5 min. later than the oxidant, suggesting a more rapid or powerful effect.

2004

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(24):3113-22.

Tolonen A, Uusitalo J.

Novamass Analytical Ltd, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland.
Fast screening method for the analysis of total flavonoid content in plants and foodstuffs by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with polarity switching.

A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) method based on time-of-flight (TOF) MS with polarity switching and continuous exact mass measurement using a LockSpray ion source was developed for fast evaluation of the total flavonoid content in plants and foodstuffs. No complicated sample preparation was needed, but only a dilution of the extracts. A fast generic gradient elution and wide mass range acquisition was used with good sensitivity. The total analysis time was only 23 min. The ion chromatograms for flavonoid compounds were automatically extracted, and the fragmentation patterns obtained using positive ion mode and exact mass data for both polarities were used for the tentative identification of compounds. Software-based automated searching of molecular ions for flavonoids and their glycosides (xylosides/arabinosides, rhamnosides, glucosides/galactosides) from total ion chromatograms was used. The compounds were quantified using quercetin, quercitrin, rutin and kuromanine as external standards and dextromethorphan as an internal standard. The detection limits ranged from 0.01-0.04 mug/mL, while the quantitation ranges obtained were 0.2-10 mug/mL for anthocyanins and 0.2-4 mug/mL for the other flavonoids. The accuracies within these ranges varied between 80-120% and precision was in the range 0-14% (relative standard deviation). Flavonoid contents of two medicinal plants (Hypericum perforatum and Rhodiola rosea), two grape red wines, two orange juices and two green teas were evaluated using the method, and the results obtained were in good agreement with those published previously.

2004

Biomed Chromatogr. 2004 Oct;18(8):550-8.
Tolonen A, Gyorgy Z, Jalonen J, Neubauer P, Hohtola A.
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland.
LC/MS/MS identification of glycosides produced by
biotransformation of cinnamyl alcohol in Rhodiola rosea compact callus aggregates.
Cinnamyl alcohol was added to the media of compact callus aggregates (CCA) of Rhodiola
rosea for stimulating the production of cinnamyl glycosides. The biotransformation reaction
produced high amounts of rosin, while only a very low amount of rosavin was produced. As
the consumption rate of cinnamyl alcohol was much higher than production of rosin, the
aqueous methanol extracts of compact callus aggregates were studied by liquid
chromatography-mass spectrometric methods and four new unexpected biotransformation
products of cinnamyl alcohol were identified.

2004

Fitoterapia. 2004 Sep;75(6):612-4.

Akgul Y, Ferreira D, Abourashed EA, Khan IA.
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Ege, Bornova, Izmir 35100, Turkey.

Lotaustralin from Rhodiola rosea roots.
Lotaustralin was isolated as a mixture of two diastereoisomeric forms from the methanol extract of Rhodiola rosea roots, together with the known compounds rosavin, rosarin, rosin, rosiridin, salidroside, and beta-sitosterol. The structure of lotaustralin was established by 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, including 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HMBC, and FAB and HR MS.

2004

Bull Exp Biol Med. 2004 Jul;138(1):63-64.

Abidov M, Grachev S, Seifulla RD, Ziegenfuss TN.

Center of Modern Medicine, Ministry of Defense Industry of Russian Federation; I. M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy; Russian Center for Physical Culture Improvement, Moscow; Pinnacle Institute of Health and Human Performance, Wadsworth Medical Center, Wadsworth.
Extract of Rhodiola rosea Radix Reduces the Level of C-Reactive Protein and Creatinine Kinase in the Blood.
The effects of extracts of Rhodiola rosea radix on blood levels of inflammatory C-reactive protein and creatinine kinase were studied in healthy untrained volunteers before and after exhausting exercise. Rhodiola rosea extract exhibited an antiinflammatory effect and protected muscle tissue during exercise.

2004

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Jun;16(3):305-15.

Walker TB, Robergs RA.

Exercise Physiology Laboratory, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131, USA.
Does Rhodiola rosea possess ergogenic properties?

Rhodiola rosea is an herb purported to possess adaptogenic and ergogenic properties and has recently been the subject of increased interest The purpose of this article was to review and summarize recent investigations of the potential performance-enhancing properties of Rhodiola rosea. Such studies have generated equivocal results. Several investigations conducted in Eastern Europe have indicated that Rhodiola rosea ingestion may produce such positive effects as improved cognitive function and reduced mental fatigue. Other research from this region has illustrated enhanced endurance exercise performance in both humans and rats. Studies conducted in Western Europe and in North America have indicated that Rhodiola rosea may possess substantial antioxidant properties but have produced mixed results when attempting to demonstrate an ergogenic effect during exercise in humans.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004 Jun;14(3):298-307.

De Bock K, Eijnde BO, Ramaekers M, Hespel P.
Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy in the Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Tervuursevest 101, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute and 4-week Rhodiola rosea intake on physical capacity, muscle strength, speed of limb movement, reaction time, and attention. METHODS: PHASE I: A double blind placebo-controlled randomized study (n= 24) was performed, consisting of 2 sessions (2 days per session). Day 1: One hour after acute Rhodiola rosea intake (R, 200-mg Rhodiola rosea extract containing 3% rosavin + 1% salidroside plus 500 mg starch) or placebo (P, 700 mg starch) speed of limb movement (plate tapping test), aural and visual reaction time, and the ability to sustain attention (Fepsy Vigilance test) were assessed. Day 2: Following the same intake procedure as on day 1, maximal isometric knee-extension torque and endurance exercise capacity were tested. Following a 5-day washout period, the experimental procedure was repeated, with the treatment regimens being switched between groups (session 2). PHASE II: A double blind placebo-controlled study (n = 12) was performed. Subjects underwent sessions 3 and 4, identical to Phase I, separated by a 4-week R/P intake, during which subjects ingested 200 mg R/P per day. RESULTS: PHASE I: Compared with P, acute R intake in Phase I increased (p <.05) time to exhaustion from 16.8 +/- 0.7 min to 17.2+/- 0.8 min. Accordingly, VO2peak (p <.05) and VCO2peak (p<.05) increased during R compared to P from 50.9 +/- 1.8 ml x min(-1) x kg(- )1 to 52.9 +/- 2.7 ml x min(-10) x kg(-1) (VO2peak) and from 60.0 +/- 2.3 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1) to 63.5+/- 2.7 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1) (VCO2peak). Pulmonary ventilation (p =.07) tended to increase more during R than during P (P: 115.9+/- 7.7 L/min; R: 124.8 +/- 7.7 L/min). All other parameters remained unchanged. PHASE II: Four-week R intake did not alter any of the variables measured. CONCLUSION: Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise capacity in young healthy volunteers. This response was not altered by prior daily 4-week Rhodiola intake
.

2004

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2004 Mar;15(3):382-6.

Yan X, Wang Y, Guo S, Shang X.

College of Life Sciences, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China.
Seasonal variations in biomass and salidroside content in roots of Rhodiola sachalinensis as affected by gauze and red film shading

Rhodiola sachalinensis A. Bor, a perennial herb, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is mainly distributed in mountains at the altitudes of 1,700-2,500 m. It is a typical alpine plant and a very important medicinal plant with high activities of anti-fatigue, anti-senescence, and anti-radiation, due to the secondary metabolite salidroside in its root. Our previous findings have proven that red light promotes salidroside synthesis remarkably but decreases biomass insignificantly, resulting in a higher yield of salidroside in roots of Rh. sachalinensis in a greenhouse. In order to investigate the influences of shading and red light on seasonal variations in biomass and salidroside content in Rh. sachalinensis roots, the effects on 3 or 4 years old Rh. sachalinensis plants in a nursery in Daxinganling Mountain (124 degrees 02' E, 50 degrees 30' N) were studied in 2001. Compared to the control (CK) of full sunlight, 6 treatments with neutral transparent film and gauze, or red film alone had been conducted for 131 days. In treatment I, Rh. sachalinensis was shaded with neutral transparent film and gauze to achieve an irradiance 51.8% of full sunlight. In treatment II, the plants were shaded by red film alone, but the irradiance was as that in treatment I. In treatments III, IV, V and VI, neutral transparent film and gauze were originally used on May 8, then shifted to red film on Jun 3, July 4, August 4 and September 2, respectively and all experiments stopped on September 16, 2001. Rh. sachalinensis roots were harvested on 2-4th from June to September and finally on September 16, and root-biomass and salidroside content were measured. Root-biomass in plants decreased significantly under shading with neutral transparent film and gauze compared to the control with full sunlight, but little variations in salidroside content and yield. In comparison with shading by neutral transparent film and gauze, root-biomass reduced lightly and salidroside content and yield in roots were increased remarkably under red-film shading. At the end of the season, salidroside content under red light was 163% in 3-year-old and 155% in 4-year-old Rh. sachalinensis roots; whereas salidroside yields were 144% in 3-year-old and 145% in 4-year-old Rh. sachalinensis roots to those in plants under shading. The results also showed that the enhancement in the salidroside content and yield were little related to the duration of red film shading, which implied that in order to increase salidroside content and get higher salidroside yield, but less affect root-biomass, Rh. sachalinensis may be shaded with red film just several days before harvest.

2004

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Mar;36(3):504-9.

Earnest CP, Morss GM, Wyatt F, Jordan AN, Colson S, Church TS, Fitzgerald Y, Autrey L, Jurca R, Lucia A.
Center for Human Performance and Nutrition Research, The Cooper Institute Center for Human Performance and Nutrition Research, Dallas, TX 75230, USA.

Effects of a commercial herbal-based formula on exercise performance in cyclists.
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: We examined the effects of a commercially marketed herbal-based formula purported to increase endurance on oxygen consumption (VO2) in 17 competitive category III/IV amateur cyclists [mean (SEM) age: 31.1 (1.8) yr; height: 178.5 (1.8) cm; weight: 77.1 (1.6) kg]. METHODS: Each cyclist participated in two (pre/post) cycling tests progressing 25 W.4 min(-1) starting at 100 W administered in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind fashion. The second trial was performed 14 d after the ingestion of a manufacturer recommended loading phase (4 d x 6 caps.d(-1)) and a maintenance phase (11 d x 3 caps.d(-1)). Three treatment capsules contained 1000 mg of Cordyceps sinensis (CS-4) and 300 mg Rhodiola rosea root extract as the primary ingredients; 800 mg of other ingredients included calcium pyruvate, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, ribose, and adenosine and 200 mcg of chromium. RESULTS: Using a 2 x 2 ANOVA, we observed no significant treatment effect for any between or within group variables including peak VO2 [treatment 4.14 (0.2) L.min(-1); placebo 4.10 (0.2) L.min(-1)], time to exhaustion [treatment 38.47 (1.7) min; placebo 36.95 (1.8) min], peak power output (PO) [treatment 300.00 (12.1) W; placebo 290.63 (12.9) W], or peak heart rate. We also observed no differences for any subpeak exercise variable including the PO eliciting 2 mmol.L(-1) blood lactate (BLa) [treatment 201.00 (18.1) W; placebo 167.50 (19.2) W] and 4 mmol.L(-1) BLa [treatment 235.88 (15.8) W; placebo 244.78 (14.9) W], ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point, or Vo2 L.min(-1) gross efficiency at each stage. CONCLUSION: A 2-wk ingestion schema of a commercial herbal-based formula is insufficient to elicit positive changes in cycling performance.

2004

Medicina (Kaunas). 2004;40(7):614-9

Kucinskaite A, Briedis V, Savickas A.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Pharmacy Organization, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus 9, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Experimental analysis of therapeutic properties of Rhodiola rosea L. and its possible application in medicine

The paper presents a review of the scientific publications on Rhodiola rosea L. known for its adaptogenic characteristics. Biologically active substances salidroside, rosin, rosavin, rosarin and tyrosol, which are mainly found in plant rhizomes, demonstrate therapeutic effect. These active components effect the central nervous system by increasing the ability to concentrate, the mental and physical power; they are efficient in the asthenic states and improve general resistance of the cells and the organism against the harmful outer influence. They also prevent the heart system from stress and arrhythmias, and posses some antioxidant activity. Some data confirm that the Rhodiola rosea L. preparations stop the growth of the malignant tumors and metastases in the liver. Some preclinical and clinical data of the golden root preparations are discussed in the survey. The interaction of the herb with other medicines, its usage and effect, recommended doses, and its side effects are also reviewed in the paper.

2003
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003 Apr;51(4):467-70.
Tolonen A, Pakonen M, Hohtola A, Jalonen J.
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, Finland.
Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Rhodiola rosea.

Rhodiola rosea L. (Golden Root) has been used for a long time as an adaptogen in Chinese traditional medicine and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. Along its known secondary metabolites tyrosol (1), salidroside (rhodioloside) (2), rosin (3), rosarin (4), rosavin (5), sachaliside 1 (6) and 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside
(7), four compounds were isolated from aqueous methanol extract of the plant and identified as cinnamyl-(6'-O-beta-xylopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8), 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-(6'-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9), picein (10) and benzyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside (11) by UV, MS and NMR methods. Compounds 8 and 9 are new natural compounds whereas compounds 10 and 11 were isolated first time from R. rosea. Also the compounds 6 and 7 are isolated earlier only from the callus cultures of the plant but not from the differentiated plant.


2003

Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2003 Jul-Aug;66(4):50-2.
Pashkevich IA, Uspenskaia IuA, Nefedova VV, Egorova AB.
Department of Animal Anatomy and Physiology, Krasnoyarsk State Medical Agricultural University, pr. Mira 88, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia.
Comparative evaluation of effects of p-tyrosol and Rhodiola rosea extract on bone marrow cells in vivo.

The effects of p-tyrosol and Rhodiola rosea extract on the hemopoietic system were compared on a model of subacute lead intoxication. No significant differences between the activity of two preparations were revealed by the study of plasma membrane blebbing, apoptosis, and necrosis processes in bone marrow. At the same time, p-tyrosol exhibited a more pronounced effect upon lipid peroxidation and offered significant protection against lead intoxication.


2003


2003

J Mass Spectrom. 2003 Aug;38(8):845-53
Tolonen A, Hohtola A, Jalonen J.
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland.
Comparison of electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization techniques in the analysis of the main constituents from Rhodiola rosea extracts by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

Rhodiola rosea L. (Golden Root) has been used for a long time as an adaptogen in Chinese traditional medicine and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. A liquid chromatographic (LC) method with mass spectrometric (MS) detection based on selected ion monitoring (SIM) was developed for determining salidroside, sachaliside 1, rosin, 4-methoxycinnamyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside, rosarin, rosavin, cinnamyl-(6'-O-beta-xylopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-(6'-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside, rosiridin and benzyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside from the callus and plant extracts in one chromatographic run. Good linearity over the range 0.5-500 ng ml(-1) for salidroside, 2-2000 ng ml(-1) for rosavin and 2-500 ng ml(-1) for benzyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside was observed. The intra-assay accuracy and precision within quantitation ranges varied between -10.0 and +13.2% and between 0.7 and 9.0%, respectively. Optimization of the ionization process was p erformed with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization techniques using four different additive compositions for eluents in the LC/MS scan mode, using both positive and negative ion modes. The best ionization sensitivity for the compounds studied was obtained with electrospray ionization when using pure water without any additives as the aqueous phase.

2003
Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Jul;26(7):1045-8
Kobayashi K, Baba E, Fushiya S, Takano F, Batkhuu J, Dash T, Sanchir C, Yoshizaki F.
Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, Sendai, Japan.
Screening of Mongolian plants for influence on amylase activity in mouse plasma and gastrointestinal tube.

Mongolian plants were screened for their influence on alpha-amylase activity in mouse plasma. Methanolic extracts of Geranium pratense, Rhodiola rosea, Ribes pullchelum and Vaccinium uliginosum inhibited the enzyme activity in isolated mouse plasma by greater than 40% and the effect was concentration dependent. Vaccinium uliginosum also showed a depressive effect on elevation of postprandial blood glucose to some extent.

2003
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2003 Aug;136(2):165-9.
Provalova NV, Skurikhin EG, Pershina OV, Minakova MY, Suslov NI, Dygai AM.
Institute of Pharmacology, Tomsk Research Center, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
Possible mechanisms underlying the effect of natural preparations on erythropoiesis under conditions of conflict situation.

We studied the effects of various natural preparations, including extracts of Siberian ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, bergenia, and ginseng and pantohematogen on erythropoiesis under conditions of conflict situation. The test preparations were divided into 2 groups depending on their modulatory effect on intensified erythropoiesis under conditions of conflict situation. Some of them reduced (extracts of ginseng, bergenia, and Rhodiola rosea), while others increased the degree of hyperplasia in the erythropoietic stem (extract of Siberian ginseng and pantohematogen). The regulatory effect of preparations depended
on activity of the corresponding neurotransmitter systems in the brain and local regulatory mechanisms of hemopoiesis.

Phytomedicine. 2003 Mar;10(2-3):95-105
Shevtsov VA, Zholus BI, Shervarly VI, Vol'skij VB, Korovin YP, Khristich MP, Roslyakova NA, Wikman G.
Centre of Sanitary and Epidemiological Inspection of the R.F. Ministry of Health, Moscow, Russia.
A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical study with an extra non-treatment group was performed to measure the effect of a single dose of standardized SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract on capacity for mental work against a background of fatigue and stress. An additional objective was to investigate a possible difference between two doses, one dose being chosen as the standard mean dose in accordance with well-established medicinal use as a psychostimulant/adaptogen, the other dose being 50% higher. Some physiological parameters, e.g. pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, were also measured. The study was carried out on a highly uniform population comprising 161 cadets aged from 19 to 21 years. All groups were found to have very similar initial data, with no significant difference with regard to any parameter. The study showed a pronounced antifatigue effect reflected in an antifatigue index defined as a ratio called AFI. The verum groups had AFI mean values of 1.0385 and 1.0195, 2 and 3 capsules respectively, whilst the figure for the placebo group was 0.9046. This was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001) for both doses (verum groups), whilst no significant difference between the two dosage groups was observed. There was a possible trend in favour of the lower dose in the psychometric tests. No such trend was found in the physiological tests.

2003
Wilderness Environ Med. 2003 Spring;14(1):9-16
Wing SL, Askew EW, Luetkemeier MJ, Ryujin DT, Kamimori GH, Grissom CK.
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 841122, USA.
Lack of effect of Rhodiola or oxygenated water supplementation on hypoxemia and oxidative stress.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of 2 potentially "oxygen promoting" dietary supplements on hypoxia and oxidative stress at a simulated altitude of 4600 m. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers (ages 20-33) received 3 separate 60-minute hypoxic exposures by breathing 13.6% oxygen at an ambient barometric pressure of 633 mm Hg (simulating the partial pressure of oxygen at 4600 m elevation). Each subject received, in random order, treatments of a 7-day supply of placebo, Rhodiola rosca, and an acute dose of stabilized oxygen dissolved in water. Arterialized capillary blood oxygen samples (PcO2) were measured at baseline and at 30 and 60 minutes of exposure. Pulse oximeter oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was measured at baseline and at every 10 minutes of hypoxic exposure. Oxidative stress markers measured included baseline and 60-minute exposure serum lipid peroxides (LPO) and urine malondialdehyde (MDA).
RESULTS: For each treatment group, PcO2 decreased by approximately 38 % from baseline to 60-minute hypoxic exposure. Similarly, SaO2 also decreased among groups from approximately 97 to 81%. Serum lipid peroxides increased significantly in the placebo group and decreased significantly from baseline in response to the stabilized oxygen treatment (P = .02); there was a trend for decreased LPO with the Rhodiola treatment (P = .10). There were no significant changes for MDA among groups. CONCLUSIONS: The 2 dietary supplements investigated did not have a significant effect on blood oxygenation after 60 minutes of sedentary hypoxic exposure. Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress was observed in the control group only. Both supplements appeared not to increase oxidative stress and may decrease free radical formation after hypoxic exposure compared with the control.

2003
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2003 Apr;51(4):467-70
Tolonen A, Pakonen M, Hohtola A, Jalonen J.
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland.
Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from Rhodiola rosea.
Rhodiola rosea L. (Golden Root) has been used for a long time as an adaptogen in Chinese traditional medicine and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. Along its known secondary metabolites tyrosol (1), salidroside (rhodioloside) (2), rosin (3), rosarin (4), rosavin (5), sachaliside 1 (6) and 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), four compounds were isolated from aqueous methanol extract of the plant and identified as cinnamyl-(6'-O-beta-xylopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8), 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-(6'-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9), picein (10) and benzyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside (11) by UV, MS and NMR methods. Compounds 8 and 9 are new natural compounds whereas compounds 10 and 11 were isolated first time from R. rosea. Also the compounds 6 and 7 are isolated earlier only from the callus cultures of the plant but not from the differentiated plant.

2002
Eksp Klin Farmakol 2002 Nov-Dec;65(6):57-9
Iaremii IN, Grigor'eva NF.
Medical Chemistry Department, Bukovinian State Medical Academy, vul. Bohomol'tsya 2, Chernivtsi 58000, Ukraine.
[Hepatoprotective properties of liquid extract of Rhodiola rosea]
The effect of a liquid extract from Rhodiola rosea on the functional state of rat liver with experimental toxic hepatitis was studied. The extract produces a hepatoprotective effect, as manifested by normalized activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, normalized content of medium-molecular-weight peptides, urea, and bilirubin, and reduced activity of alanine aminotransferase and glutathione-S-transferase in the blood plasma of rats with the toxic hepatitis model.

2002
HerbalGram; J. of the American Botanical Council 2002;56:40-52
Brown RP, Gerbarg PL, Ramazanov Z.
Rhodiola rosea. A phytomedical overview.

2002

In: Tasman A, Lieberman J, Kay J (eds.) Psychiatry. Wiley, W. Sussex, UK, 2nd edition, 2002
Brown RP, Gerbarg PG, Muskin PR
Alternative therapies in psychiatry.

2002
Bull Exp Biol Med 2002 May;133(5):428-32

Provalova NV, Skurikhin EG, Pershina OV, Suslov NI, Minakova MY, Dygai AM, Gol'dberg ED.

Institute of Pharmacology, Tomsk Research Center, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.

Mechanisms Underling the Effects of Adaptogens on Erythropoiesis during Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation.

Abstract: we studied the effects of adaptogens extracts of Siberian ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, bergenia, and ginseng and pantohematogen, on erythropoiesis after paradoxical sleep deprivation. Adaptogens stimulated bone marrow erythropoiesis in the early stage, but decreased the count of bone marrow erythrokaryocytes 3-7 days after treatment. The effect of adaptogens on erythropoiesis is associated with modulation of the state of brain neurotransmitter systems followed by changes in functional activity of cells in the hemopoiesis-inducing microenvironment.

2002
Bull Exp Biol Med 2002 Mar;133(3):261-4

Provalova NV, Skurikhin EG, Suslov NI, Dygai AM, Gol'dberg ED.

Institute of Pharmacology, Tomsk Research Center, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
Effects of Adaptogens on Granulocytopoiesis during Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation.
Abstract: we studied the effects of extracts from Siberian ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, bergenia, and ginseng (G115) and pantohematogen on granulocytopoiesis after paradoxical sleep deprivation. The effects of adaptogens on the blood system were most pronounced during hyperplasia of granulocytopoiesis. Natural preparations were divided into groups depending on their activity. Extracts of Siberian ginseng and Rhodiola rosea did not modulate granulocytopoiesis. Ginseng G115 extract suppressed granulocytopoiesis. Bergenia extract and pantohematogen produced ambiguous effects on the granulocytic hemopoietic stem.

2002
Abstracts of the Seminar on Rhodiola rosea
"Use and introduction of medicinal plants with adaptogen effects in Finland" 2002, June 18, Mikkeli, Finland

Economo A, Galambosi B
Anti Aging Center Europe, Agrifood Research Finland
Research history, utilization and marketing of adaptogen medicinal plants.
Abstract: The research of adaptogen medicinal plants has been started during 1960th years in the former Soviet Union, in the Institute of Biologically Active Substances at Vladivostok. The research have been focused firstly on the so-called "first generation of adaptogens", like Panax, Acanthopanax and later on the "second generation of adaptogen plants", as Leuzea, Rhodiola, Schizandra and Aralia mandschurica. The research results published mainly in Russian, have been utilized firstly increasing the stress tolerance of astronauts and increasing the productivity of top sportsmen. Later the results have spread in other countries, e.g. Sweden, East-European countries, USA:n. Presently the raw material of adaptogen species are collected from the nature ( Acanthopanax, Rhodiola, Schisandra ) or after introduction research from field cultivation ( Panax Leuzea ). Preparations based on adaptogen plants are popular in the market mainly of Russia, USA and its marketing is popular by e-mail as well. In Europe e.g. preparations of Rhodiola rosea are sold in Sweden, Finland , where it is an endemic plant and where its field cultivation has been started as well.

2002
Phytochemistry 2002 Mar;59(6):655-61 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut
Rohloff J.
The Plant Biocentre, Department of Botany, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491, Trondheim, Norway.
Volatiles from rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea L.
Abstract: Terpenes and aroma volatiles from rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea L. from Norway have been isolated by both steam distillation and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis. The dried rhizomes contained 0.05% essential oil with the main chemical classes: monoterpene hydrocarbons (25.40%), monoterpene alcohols (23.61%) and straight chain aliphatic alcohols (37.54%). n-Decanol (30.38%), geraniol (12.49%) and 1,4-p-menthadien-7-ol (5.10%) were the most abundant volatiles detected in the essential oil, and a total of 86 compounds were identified in both the SD and HS-SPME samples. Geraniol was identified as the most important rose-like odour compound besides geranyl formate, geranyl acetate, benzyl alcohol and phenylethyl alcohol. Floral notes such as linalool and its oxides, nonanal, decanal, nerol and cinnamyl alcohol highlight the flowery scent of rose root rhizomes.

2001
Altern Med Rev 2001; Jun, 6(3): 293-302.
Kelly GS.

Associate Editor, Alternative Medicine Review; Correspondence address: 179 Dwight St Apt 303, New Haven, CT 06511.

"Rhodiola rosea: A possible plant adaptogen."
Rhodiola rosea is a popular plant in traditional medical systems in Eastern Europe and Asian with a reputation for stimulating the nervous system, decreasing depression, enhancing work performance, eliminating fatigue, and preventing high altitude sickness. Rhodiola rosea has been categorised as an adaptogen by Russian researchers due to its observed ability to increase resistance to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical stresses. Its claimed benefits include antidepressant, anticancer, cardioprotective, and central nervous system enhancement. Research also indicates great utility in asthenia conditions (decline in work performance, sleep difficulties, poor appetite, irritability, hypertension, headaches, and fatigue) developing subsequent to intense physical or intellectual strain. The adaptogenic, cardiopulmonary protective, and central nervous system activities of Rhodiola rosea have been attributed primarily to its ability to influence levels and activity of monoamines and opioid peptides such as beta-endorphins.

2001
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2001; Apr, 49(4): 465-7.
Ganzera M, Yayla Y, Khan IA.
National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Mississippi, University 38677, USA.

"Analysis of the marker compounds of Rhodiola rosea L. (golden root) by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography.
Abstract: An HPLC method permitting the first simultaneous detection of 5 marker compounds (salidroside, rosarin, rosavin, rosin, rosiridin) of R. rosea was developed. A separation was achieved within 27 min by using C-18 column material, a phosphate buffer/acetonitrile gradient system and at a separation temperature of 60 degrees C. All five compounds could be detected at concentrations as low as 0.62 microg/ml and were clearly assignable in R. rosea plant material and commercial products. Therefore, this quantitative and qualitative applicability of the method offers efficient and reliable means for the evaluation of R. rosea and products thereof.

2000
Eksp Klin Farmakol 2000 Jan-Feb;63(1):76-8
Spasov AA, Mandrikov VB, Mironova IA.
The effect of the preparation rodakson on the psychophysiological and physical adaptation of students to an academic load Volgograd State Medical Academy, Ministry of Public Health of the Russian Federation, Russia.
The effect of rhodaxon, an adaptogen preparation based on the Rhodiola rosea extract, upon the physical and intellectual working capacity and psychoemotional state of foreign students during their study in a Russian high school was evaluated. It was established that rhodaxon administration provided increase in the amount of veloergometric work accomplished and reliably increased the kinesthesiometric sensitivity. The drug also lead to marked increased in the general condition and a decrease in the level of psychic fatigue and situational anxiety. On the whole, the pharmacological properties of the rhodaxon preparation studied coincided with those reported for the gold root extract. The fact that the rhodaxon preparation contains no ethyl alcohol extends possibilities of the clinical administration of the new preparation.

2000
Phytomedicine 2000; Oct, 7(5):389-99.
Boon-Niermeijer EK, van den Berg A, Wikman G, Wiegant FA.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

"Phyto-adaptogens protect against environmental stress-induced death of embryos from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis."

Abstract: The main purpose of the studies presented in this paper is twofold: 1) to evaluate whether phyto-adaptogens (Acanthopanax senticosus and Rhodiola rosea) are able to exert a protective action against stress-induced death of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis; and 2) whether a possible protective action by phyto-adaptogens can be explained by the induction of heat shock proteins. Enhancement in resistance by phyto-adaptogens was studied by applying plant extracts for a period of 20 hours to 3-day old larvae of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Subsequently they were exposed to a high and toxic dose of different environmental stressors. The following stress conditions were selected: a physical stress condition (heat shock: 43 degrees C for 4 minutes), an oxidative stress condition (superoxide radicals induced by menadione (600 microM for 2 hours)) and heavy metal-induced stress (copper (150 microM for 1 hour) or cadmium (20 microM during 1 hour)). Both Acanthopanax and Rhodiola exert a strong protective action against a lethal heat shock. These adaptogens also significantly protect against the negative effect of superoxide radicals as induced by menadione. With respect to the protective action against exposure to heavy metals a small but significant protection was observed against intoxication with copper or cadmium by the phyto-adaptogens. In summary, there appears to be a difference in efficiency in enhancing resistance to the various stress conditions used (heat shock>menadione>copper>cadmium). Based on the results presented in this paper, we can conclude that phyto-adaptogens are able to enhance the resistance against the different stress conditions tested in developing individuals of Lymnaea. Although the degree to which resistance is enhanced appears to depend on the type of stressor applied, our results confirm the definition of phyto-adaptogens as being universal enhancers of non-specific resistance against different kinds of stress conditions. With respect to the mechanism of enhanced resistance, the question was asked whether this protective action is caused by an induction of heat shock proteins (hsps), which are known to be involved in tolerance and adaptation. The phyto-adaptogens did not induce the synthesis of any of the hsps, nor did they modulate the normal heat shock induced synthesis of these stress proteins. We conclude that it is unlikely that hsps play a major role in obtaining an enhanced state of resistance provided by phyto-adaptogens.

2000
Phytomedicine 2000; Oct, 7(5): 365-71.
Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, Gabrielian E, Wikman G, Wagner H.
Department of Neurology, Armenian State Medical University, Yerevan.

"Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue--a double blind cross-over study of a standardised extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty."
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated low-dose treatment with a standardised extract SHR/5 of rhizome Rhodiola rosea L, (RRE) on fatigue during night duty among a group of 56 young, healthy physicians. The effect was measured as total mental performance calculated as Fatigue Index. The tests chosen reflect an overall level of mental fatigue, involving complex perceptive and cognitive cerebral functions, such as associative thinking, short-term memory, calculation and ability of concentration, and speed of audio-visual perception. These parameters were tested before and after night duty during three periods of two weeks each: a) a test period of one RRE/placebo tablet daily, b) a washout period and c) a third period of one placebo/RRE tablet daily, in a double-blind cross-over trial. The perceptive and cognitive cerebral functions mentioned above were investigated using 5 different tests. A statistically significant improvement in these tests was observed in the treatment group (RRE) during the first two weeks period. No side-effects were reported for either treatment noted. These results suggest that RRE can reduce general fatigue under certain stressful conditions.

2000
Eksp Klin Farmakol 2000 Sep-Oct;63(5):59-61 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut
Razina TG, Zueva EP, Amosova EN, Krylova SG.
Medicinal plant preparations used as adjuvant therapeutics in experimental oncology. [Article in Russian]
Tomsk Scientific Center, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Russia.
Experiments on mice inoculated with metastasing Lewis lung carcinoma showed that the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of cyclophosphan (cyclophosphamide) are potentiated by the extracts of phytopreparations based on Baikal scullcap (Scutellaria baikalensis), rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea), common licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and their principal acting components--baikalin, paratyrosol, and glycyrram.

2000
Eksp Klin Farmakol 2000; Jul-Aug, 63(4): 29-31.
Maimeskulova LA, Maslov LN.
Laboratory of Experimental Cardiology, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, Russia.

"Anti-arrhythmic effect of phytoadaptogens."
Abstract: Repeated prophylactic administration of plant adaptogen preparations based on extracts from rhodiola, eleutherococcus, leuzea, and ginseng, produced a pronounced antiarrhythmic effect on the model of adrenal arrhythmia in animals. Preliminary opioid receptor block by naloxone reduced the protective effect of phytopreparations in the adapted animals. Intravenous and intracerebroventricular administration of naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist) showed that the anti-arrhythmic effect of rhodiola extract proceeds through the activation of both central and peripheral opioid receptors.

2000
Arch Pharm Res 2000; Aug, 23(4): 349-52.
Linh PT, Kim YH, Hong SP, Jian JJ, Kang JS.
College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Taejon, Korea.

"Quantitative determination of salidroside and tyrosol from the underground part of Rhodiola rosea by high performance liquid chromatography.
Abstract: A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine salidroside and tyrosol simultaneously in the Rhodiola rosea. The optimum condition was Nova-Pak C18 as stationary phase, 6.5% methanol in water as mobile phase and detection at UV 225 nm. The identification was carried out by comparing the retention time and IC/MS spectrum of the relevant peaks with those of isolated standards. The contents of salidroside and tyrosol in the samples gathered from various area in China were ranged over 1.3-11.1 mg/g and 0.3-2.2 mg/g, respectively.

2000
Am J Clin Nutr 2000; Aug, 72(2 Suppl): 624S-36S.
Bucci LR.
Weider Nutrition International, Salt Lake City, UT 84104-4726, USA. This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

"Selected herbals and human exercise performance."
Abstract: Herbs have been used throughout history to enhance physical performance, but scientific scrutiny with controlled clinical trials has only recently been used to study such effects. The following herbs are currently used to enhance physical performance regardless of scientific evidence of effect: Chinese, Korean, and American ginsengs; Siberian ginseng, mahuang or Chinese ephedra; ashwagandha; rhodiola; yohimbe; CORDYCEPS: fungus, shilajit or mummio; smilax; wild oats; Muira puama; suma (ecdysterone); Tribulus terrestris; saw palmetto berries; beta-sitosterol and other related sterols; and wild yams (diosgenin). Controlled studies of Asian ginsengs found improvements in exercise performance when most of the following conditions were true: use of standardized root extracts, study duration (>8 wk, daily dose >1 g dried root or equivalent, large number of subjects, and older subjects. Improvements in muscular strength, maximal oxygen uptake, work capacity, fuel homeostasis, serum lactate, heart rate, visual and auditory reaction times, alertness, and psychomotor skills have also been repeatedly documented. Siberian ginseng has shown mixed results. Mahuang, ephedrine, and related alkaloids have not benefited physical performance except when combined with caffeine. Other herbs remain virtually untested. Future research on ergogenic effects of herbs should consider identity and amount of substance or presumed active ingredients administered, dose response, duration of test period, proper experimental controls, measurement of psychological and physiologic parameters (including antioxidant actions), and measurements of performance pertinent to intended uses.

2000
Phytomedicine 2000; Apr, 7(2): 85-9.
Spasov AA, Wikman GK, Mandrikov VB, Mironova IA, Neumoin VV.
Volgograd Medical Academy, Russia.

"A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen."
Abstract: The objective was to investigate the stimulating and normalizing effect of the adaptogen Rhodiola rosea extract SHR-5 in foreign students during a stressful examination period. The study was performed as a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled with low repeated dose regime. The study drug and the placebo were taken for 20 days by the students during an examination period. The physical and mental performance were assessed before and after the period, based on objective as well as on subjective evaluation. The most significant improvement in the SHR-5 group was seen in physical fitness, mental fatigue and neuro-motoric tests (p <0.01). The self-assessment of the general well-being was also significantly (p < 0.05) better in the verum group. No significance was seen in the correction of text tests or a neuro-muscular tapping test. The overall conclusion is that the study drug gave significant results compared to the placebo group but that the dose level probably was suboptimal.

1999
ATN/Safe Goods Publishing, CT. 1999, pp. 88
Zakir Ramazanov, Maria del Mar Bernal Suarez
"New secrets of effective natural stress and weight management, using Rhodiola rosea and Rhodendron caucasicum".

1999
Kensington Publishing Corp, NY. 1999, pp. 176
Carl Germano, Zakir Ramazanov

"Arctic root (Rhodiola rosea). The powerful new ginseng alternative"

1999
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999;893:154-75
Mattson MP, Pedersen WA, Duan W, et al.
Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying perturbed energy metabolism and neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

1999
Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.
Mattson MP, Pedersen WA, Duan W, Culmsee C, Camandola S.
Synaptic degeneration and death of nerve cells are defining features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), the two most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disorders.
In AD, neurons in the hippocampus and basal forebrain (brain regions that subserve learning and memory functions) are selectively vulnerable. In PD dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra-striatum (brain regions that control body movements) selectively degenerate. Studies of postmortem brain tissue from AD and PD patients have provided evidence for increased levels of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired glucose uptake in vulnerable neuronal populations. Studies of animal and cell culture models of AD and PD suggest that increased levels of oxidative stress (membrane lipid peroxidation, in particular) may disrupt neuronal energy metabolism and ion homeostasis, by impairing the function of membrane ion-motive ATPases and glucose and glutamate transporters. Such oxidative and metabolic compromise may there-by render neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Studies of the pathogenic mechanisms of AD-linked mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins strongly support central roles for perturbed cellular calcium homeostasis and aberrant proteolytic processing of APP as pivotal events that lead to metabolic compromise in neurons. Specific molecular "players" in the neurodegenerative processes in AD and PD are being identified and include Par-4 and caspases (bad guys) and neurotrophic factors and stress proteins (good guys). Interestingly, while studies continue to elucidate cellular and molecular events occurring in the brain in AD and PD, recent data suggest that both AD and PD can manifest systemic alterations in energy metabolism (e.g., increased insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose metabolism). Emerging evidence that dietary restriction can forestall the development of AD and PD is consistent with a major "metabolic" component to these disorders, and provides optimism that these devastating brain disorders of aging may be largely preventable.

1999
Herba Polonica Tom XLV 1999 Nr 2
Furmanowa M, Kedzia B, Hartwich M, and Kozlowski J
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Rhodiola Rosea L

1999
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999;893:154-75
Mattson MP, Pedersen WA, Duan W, Culmsee C, Camandola S.
Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying perturbed energy metabolism and neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. Synaptic degeneration and death of nerve cells are defining features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), the two most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disorders. In AD, neurons in the hippocampus and basal forebrain (brain regions that subserve learning and memory functions) are selectively vulnerable. In PD dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra-striatum (brain regions that control body movements) selectively degenerate. Studies of postmortem brain tissue from AD and PD patients have provided evidence for increased levels of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired glucose uptake in vulnerable neuronal populations. Studies of animal and cell culture models of AD and PD suggest that increased levels of oxidative stress (membrane lipid peroxidation, in particular) may disrupt neuronal energy metabolism and ion homeostasis, by impairing the function of membrane ion-motive ATPases and glucose and glutamate transporters. Such oxidative and metabolic compromise may there-by render neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Studies of the pathogenic mechanisms of AD-linked mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins strongly support central roles for perturbed cellular calcium homeostasis and aberrant proteolytic processing of APP as pivotal events that lead to metabolic compromise in neurons. Specific molecular "players" in the neurodegenerative processes in AD and PD are being identified and include Par-4 and caspases (bad guys) and neurotrophic factors and stress proteins (good guys). Interestingly, while studies continue to elucidate cellular and molecular events occurring in the brain in AD and PD, recent data suggest that both AD and PD can manifest systemic alterations in energy metabolism (e.g., increased insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose metabolism). Emerging evidence that dietary restriction can forestall the development of AD and PD is consistent with a major "metabolic" component to these disorders, and provides optimism that these devastating brain disorders of aging may be largely preventable.

1998
Eksp Klin Farmakol 1998; May-Jun, 61(3): 61-3.
Azizov AP, Seifulla RD.
Department of Biologically Active Substances,
All-Russian Research Institute of Physical Culture, Moscow, Russia.

"The effect of elton, leveton, fitoton and adapton on the work capacity of experimental animals."
Abstract: The test with running on a treadbane showed a 56% increase of working capacity in the control group of male albino mice on the 20th day of training. Oral administration of elton, leveton, phytoton, and adapton, as well as Leuzea and Rhodiola extracts and Schisandra chinensis tincture caused a statistically significant increase in the time of running on the treadbane of animals by the 10th day of medication. The increase in the working capacity of the animals was more marked by the 20th day. In the test of swimming "to the limit" adapton, phytoton, leveton, and elton increased to a greater extent the working capacity of male albino rats in diminishing succession (from 213 to 168%). Schisandra tincture and Rhodiola and Leuzea extracts also increased the swimming time of the animals by 135-159%.

1998
Biofizika 1998; Mar-Apr, 43(2): 186-8, in Russian.
Bol'shakova IV, Lozovskaia EL, Sapezhinskii II.
"Antioxidant properties of a series of extracts from medicinal plants."
Abstract: Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants affected human central nervous system was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimised. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum > Eleutherococcus > Rhodiola > Leonurus > Aralia > Valeriana > Echinopanax > Schizandra > Panax ginseng.

1998
Eksp Klin Farmakol 1998; Mar-Apr, 61(2):37-40, in Russian
Maimeskulova LA, Maslov LN.
Department of Experimental Cardiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences,
Tomsk Research Center, Russia.

"The anti-arrhythmia action of an extract of Rhodiola rosea and of n-tyrosol in models of experimental arrhythmias."
Abstract: A daily 8-day course of Rhodiolae fluidum extract (1 ml/kg; ED50 = 0.43 ml/kg)--a preparation from the group of adaptogens caused a marked preventive antiarrhythmic effect on models of adrenaline and CaCl2-induced, but not acontine, arrhythmias. Aglycone--n-tyrosol demonstrated a lower antiarrhythmic activity (ED50 = 16 mg/kg) than that of Rhodiola extract.

1998
Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med. 1998; 125 (4): 424-6.
Maslov LN et. al.

"Mechanism of the anti-arrhytmic effect of the Rhodiola rosea extract."

1997
Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter 1997; Oct-Dec, (4): 22-4, in Russian
Salikhova RA, Aleksandrova IV, Mazurik VK, Mikhailov VF, Ushenkova LN, Poroshenko GG.
"Effect of Rhodiola rosea on the yield of mutation alterations and DNA repair in bone marrow cells."
Abstract: The study was made of the influence of the Rhodiola rosea extracts administration on chromosome aberrations, production of cells with micronuclei and unscheduled DNA synthesis in bone marrow cells of mice under action of mutagens cyclophosphamide and N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). It was found that Rhodiola rosea extracts reduce significantly the yield of cells with the chromosome aberrations and micronuclei induced by cyclophosphamide in vivo, inhibit unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by NMU in vitro. It is emphasised that Rhodiola rosea extracts are antimutagens due to ability to raise the efficiency of the intracell DNA repair mechanisms.

1997
Eksp Klin Farmakol 1997; May-Jun; 60(3): 34-6, in Russian
Lishmanov IB, Naumova AV, Afanas'ev SA, Maslov LN.
"Contribution of the opioid system to realization of inotropic effects of Rhodiola rosea extracts in ischemic and reperfusion heart damage in vitro. "
Abstract: It has been established that a course of oral administration of Rhodiola rosea extract in a dose of 3.5 mg/kg prevents reperfusion decrease in contraction amplitude of the isolated perfused rat heart. It also prevents reduction of coronary flow and development of contracture in the postischemic period. Intravenous infusion of naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) completely abolishes the favorable effect of Rhodiola in relation to the heart contractility and coronary flow parameters. The protective effect of Rhodiola may probably be connected with increase in the level of endogenous opioid peptides.

1997
Radiats Biol Radioecol 1997; May-Jun, 37(3): 366-71, in Russian
Iakubovskii MM, Pentiuk AA, Khmelnitskii OK, Oleinik VN.
"The activity of the lipid peroxidation processes in the mucosa of the rat small intestine and its morphofunctional state under acute irradiation and the administration of combined preparations created on a base of highly dispersed silica."
Abstract: Morphofunctional and biochemical studies were carried out on bastard male rats (weight 200-240 g). The results showed that X-ray irradiation had induced structural alterations and elevation of lipid peroxidation in small intestine. Using of complex preparations defended this organ against pathological damages. The first preparation provided rat organisms with 100 ml/kg of silica, 2 mg/kg of beta-carotene, 30 mg/kg of alpha-tocopherol and 0.2 mg/kg of natrium selenite. The second preparation provided 100 mg/kg of silica, 10 mg/kg of dry Rhodiola extract, 0.1 mg/kg of tincture of Lagochilus [correction of Ladohilli] inebrians and 0.05 ml/kg of tincture of Aralia mandshurica. The third preparation provided organism with 100 mg/kg of silica and 20 mg/kg of thiobenzimidazole derivative. All these preparations had produced marked pharmacological effect.

1997
Eksp Klin Farmakol 1997; Jan-Feb, 60(1): 38-9, in Russian
Maimeskulova LA, Maslov LN, Lishmanov IB, Krasnov EA.

"The participation of the mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in the realisation of the anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea."
Abstract: A course of the adaptogen extractum Rhodiola rosea (3.5 ml/kg given per os daily for 8 days). produces am antiarrhythmic effect on models of epinephrine-induced arrhythmia. Blockade of mu-opiate receptors (OR) by naloxone (0.2 mg/kg) and delta-OR by ICI 174.864 (2.5 mg/kg) had no effect on the resistance of the heart of rats adapted to epinephrine. Higher doses of naloxone reduced significantly the antiarrhythmic effect of extr. Rhodiola. The antiarrhythmic effect of the extract is assumed to be related to activation of the opioid system and stimulation of kappa-OR.

1997
Biofizika 1997, 42(2), 480-83
Bolshakova IV, Lozovskaia EL, Sapezhinskii II
Antioxidant properties of a series of extracts from medicinal plants.

1996
Apthech. Delo 1996; 15: 34-38.
Khnykina LA, Zotova MI

"To the pharmacognostic study of Rhodiola rosea."

1996
Biophysics 1996; 42: 1480-1485.
Bolchakova IV, Lozoskaya EL, Sapezhinski II.

"Antioxidant properties of a series of extracts from medicinal plants."

1996
Stomatologiia (Mosk) 1996; Spec No:42-3, in Russian
Alekhova TM, Iaremenko AI, Lobanov SA, Belozub EA.

"The experimental evaluation of the efficacy of using a Rhodiola rosea extract for treating odontogenic inflammatory diseases."

1995
Urol Nefrol (Mosk) 1995; Mar-Apr, (2):46-7, in Russian
Bocharova OA, Matveev BP, Baryshnikov AI, Figurin KM, Serebriakova RV, Bodrova NB
"The effect of a Rhodiola rosea extract on the incidence of recurrences of a superficial bladder cancer (experimental clinical research)."
Abstract: Oral administration of Rhodiola rosea extract to a small group of patents (n = 12) with superficial bladder carcinoma (T1G1-2) improved the characteristics of the urothelial tissue integration, parameters of leukocyte integrins and T-cell immunity. The average frequency of relapses for these patients has been found to fall twice, though statistical differences were not significant.

1995
Farmatsiya 1995; 44(3): 35-8.
Krendall FP et. al.
"Examining the hepatoprotective effect of a preparation made from Rhodiola rosea culture biomass."

1994
Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Russian Federation Ministry of Health, phase two, 1994.
Baranov VM
"Experimental trials of herbal adaptogen effect on the quality of operator activity, mental and professional working capacity."

1994
Eksp Klin Farmakol 1994; Nov-Dec, 57(6): 61-3, in Russian
Maslova LV, Kondrat'ev BI, Maslov LN, Lishmanov IB.

"The cardioprotective and antiadrenergic activity of an extract of Rhodiola rosea in stress".
Abstract: The course of administration of Rhodiola rosea extract was studied for effects on the pattern of stress-induced cardiac damage which was assessed by 99mTc-pyrophosphate accumulation in the heart. Rhodiola rosea was found to prevent stress-induced cardiac damage. Simultaneously, myocardial catecholamines and cAMP levels were measured. Rhodiola rosea was ascertained to prevent both stress-induced catecholamine release and higher cAMP levels in the myocardium. Moreover, the adaptogen prevented lower adrenal catecholamines during stress. The findings suggest that the antistressor and cardioprotective effects of Rhodiola rosea are associated with limited adrenergic effect on the heart.

1994
Dopovidi Akademiyi Ukrayiny 1994; 0 (11): 164-167.
Barilyak IR, Dugan AM
"Investigation of anti-mutagenic effect of alcohol extracts from tissue cultures of Rhodiola rosea and Polyscias in experiments with Salmonella typhimurium."

1994
Contract 93-11-615 Phase I, Phase II. Ministry of Health, Institute. of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow, 1994
Baranov VB
The response of cardiovascular system to dosed physical load under the effect of herbal adaptogen.

1993
Biull Eksp Biol Med 1993; Nov, 116(11): 480-3, Russian
Afanas'ev SA, Alekseeva ED, Bardamova IB, Maslova LV, Lishmanov IB.
"Cardiac contractile function following acute cooling of the body and the adaptogenic correction of its disorders."
Abstract: In experiments on white Wistar rats the effect of acute 4-hour freezing at -10 degrees C on contractile function of the hearts isolated by the Langendorff technique, and the protective efficacy of Rhodiola rosea extract were investigated. The obtained results testify to the fact that acute cooling leads to a decrease in myocardial contractile activity that recovers during 18 hours. But this recovery cannot be complete as it does not result in stable contractility of isolated heart in perfusion. Preliminary adaptation of animals during treatment with Rhodiola rosea extract prevents the decrease in contractility force immediately after acute cooling and contributes to the stable contractility during 60 minutes of perfusion. Moreover, Rhodiola rosea extract does not remove the disturbance in diastolic function and in all cases leads to a decrease in coronary blood flow. The effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on the myocardium is likely to be similar to that of myocardial recovery after acute cooling.

1993
Biull Eksp Biol Med 1993; Aug, 116(8): 175-6, in Russian
Lishmanov IB, Maslova LV, Maslov LN, Dan'shina EN.
"The anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea and its possible mechanism".
Abstract: A course injection of Rhodiola rosea extract for eight days was reported to increase the resistance of experimental animals to adrenalin- or CaCl2-induced arrhythmias. Preliminary injection of naloxone in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg eliminated the antiarrhythmic effect of Rhodiola. Indomethacin had no effect the antiarrhythmic action of Rhodiola. The antiarrhythmic effect of Rhodiola course injections was assumed to be associated with the induction of opioid peptides biosynthesis.

1993
Dissertation, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen, 1993
Noerr H
Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of the adaptogens: Eleutherococcus senticoccus, Ocimum sanctum, Codonopsis pilosula, Rhodiola crenelatu.

1992
Vopr Onkol 1992;38(10): 1217-22, in Russian
Udintsev SN, Krylova SG, Fomina TI.

"The enhancement of the efficacy of adriamycin by using hepatoprotectors of plant origin in metastases of Ehrlich's adenocarcinoma to the liver in mice".
Abstract: It was shown that the use of an anthracycline antibiotic--adriamycin in mice with metastatic involvement resulted in pronounced liver dysfunction, as suggested by a sharp increase in blood transaminase levels. In the same model, a hepatoprotector of plant origin--Rhodiola rosea extract--was shown to inhibit tumor dissemination. Combined application of adriamycin and the extract proved no inferior in terms of antimetastatic efficacy and nearly free from toxicity. 1992 Yau Hsueh Pao 1992; 27 (11): 849-52, "HPLC determination of salidroside in the roots of Rhodiola genus plants" Authors: Wang S., You XT, Wang FP College of Pharmacy, West China University of Medical Sciences, Chengdu.

1991
Biofizika 1991; 36(4): 105-8 Jan-Feb.
Udintsev SN, Shakhov VP, Borovskoi IG, Ibragimova SG
"The effect of low concentrations of adaptogen solutions on the functional activity of murine bone marrow cells in vitro."

1991
Neoplasma 1991; 38(3): 323-31.
Udintsev SN, Shakhov VP.
Research Institute of Pharmacology, USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, USSR.

"The role of humoral factors of regenerating liver in the development of experimental tumours and the effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on this process."
Abstract: In experiment on rats with Pliss lymphosarcoma (PLS) it was shown that partial hepatectomy (PHE), a course application of Rhodiola rosea extract (RRE) or combined effects inhibit the growth of tumours by 37, 39 and 59%, respectively, and that of metastases by 42, 50 and 75%. In combined treatment the process of hepatic regeneration was completed in earlier terms versus the animals which underwent PHE, and proliferate activity of the tumour and metastases decreased by 15 and 59%, respectively, judging by the degree of 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA of these tissues. The assessment of clonogenic activity of PLS cells taken in the animals of this group, using the method of diffusion chambers, revealed a significant decrease in this index versus the rats which underwent PHE or which were given RRE (number of colonies per chamber being 4.8 +/- 0.5; 8.6 +/- 0.9; 5.7 +/- 0.6, respectively; in control 13.8 +/- 1.5). The assumption that these effects are determined by factors originating from the regenerating liver was confirmed in experiments with double-layer agar systems. Inhibition of colony-forming activity of PLS cells was the maximum in application of the hepatocytes of the rats which underwent a complex of effects, as a feeder, versus the hepatocytes taken in intact or hepatectomized animals, or the rats which were given RRE (number of colonies per plate well being 4.6 +/- 0.3; 15.7 +/- 1.6; 7.4 +/- 0.8; 8.7 +/- 0.9, respectively; in the control 25.6 +/- 6.5). In experiments on mice with Ehrlich adenocarcinoma, the factors isolated from the liver of animals subjected to PHE against a background of RRE administration and from the liver of mice which were given RRE only, as well as operated or intact ones, inhibited the tumour growth to 63, 38, 35 and 21%, respectively.

1991
Eur J Cancer 1991; 27(9): 1182.
Udintsev SN, Schakhov VP.

"Decrease of cyclophosphamide haematotoxicity by Rhodiola rosea root extract in mice with Ehrlich and Lewis transplantable tumours."

1990
Eksp Onkol 1990;12(6):55-6, in Russian
Udintsev SN, Shakhov VP.
"Changes in clonogenic properties of bone marrow and transplantable mice tumour cells during combined use of cyclophosphane and biological response modifiers of adaptogenic origin."
Abstract: The clonogenic activity of tumours and blood marrow cells has been studied in experiments on CBA, BALB/C and C57B1/6 mice with the Ehrlich adenocarcinoma and Lewis lung carcinosarcoma treated with adaptogenic drugs of Rhodiola Rosea extract, a synthetic analogue of Rhodiola phenol derivative, methyluracil and their combinations with cyclophosphamide. The extract and derivative are shown to protect the myelopoietic tissue from the toxic action of cyclophosphamide, retaining or increasing the suppressive effect of the latter towards clonogenic tumours cells. These data can be the reason for using the extract and derivative during the antitumor chemotherapy as biological response modifiers.

1989
Paper released by the Scientific Research Institute of Pharmacology of the Tomsk Scientific Center, Academy of Science of the USSR, 1989.
Maslova L.V.
"The Cardioprotective Action of Adaptogenic Preparations during Stress."

1989
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 1989 Nov-Dec;35(6):82-7, in Russian
Molokovskii DS, Davydov VV, Tiulenev VV.
"The action of adaptogenic plant preparations in experimental alloxan diabetes."
Abstracts: Experiments on mice and rats with alloxan diabetes were conducted for comparative assessment of the effectiveness of therapeutic use of adaptogenic plant pharmaceuticals as well as some other commonly used plant drugs. Of marked antidiabetic properties were root and leaf ginseng tincture (LGT), Echinopanax tincture, extracts of Eleutherococcus, Rhodiola (ER) and Leuzea which decreased the blood level of glucose in a CTT (5 g h of glucose per I kg of the animal body mass) from 17.15 to 11.19, 11.50, 12.72, 11.69, 13.47 mmol/l and increased the alloxan-reduced level of liver glycogen by 50-80% (P less than 0.05). Aralia and Schizandra tinctures for this diabetic model were ineffective. Yarrow, everlastings and birch leaf tea also possessed marked hypoglycemic and glycogen sparing properties. The most effective experimentally plant adaptogens LGT and ER increased the blood level of insulin in alloxan diabetic rats in a GTT from 16.75 up to 44.42, 35.31 microU/ml and decreased the level of glucagon from 495 to 195 and 138 pg/ml, respectively. The authors discussed mechanisms of antidiabetic, insulinotropic and hypoglucagonemic action of the effective plant pharmaceuticals and the prospects of their use in multimodality therapy of diabetes mellitus of type I.

1988
Antibiot Khimioter 1988; Aug 33(8): 615-7, in Russian
Borovskaia TG, Fomina TI, Iaremenko KV.

"A decrease in the toxic action of rubomycin on the small intestine of mice with a transplantable tumour through the use of a Rhodiola extract."

1987
Biull Eksp Biol Med 1987; Apr 103(4): 422-4, in Russian
Lishmanov IB, Trifonova ZV, Tsibin AN, Maslova LV, Dement'eva LA.
"Plasma beta-endorphin and stress hormones in stress and adaptation."
Abstract: The experiments on white rats have shown that the induction of 4 hour stress produces an acute increase in beta-endorphin level, as well as characteristic changes in ACTH, cortisol, insulin, thyroxin and triiodothyronine concentrations. Different types of adaptation (training with short stress periods or injection of rhodiola rosea extract) promote a moderate increase in the amount of serum immunoreactive beta-endorphin, preventing its subsequent stress-induced elevation. Adaptation is characterized by a decrease or total prevention of hormonal change peculiar to stress. The role of opioid neuropeptides in enhancing stress tolerance and the effect of adaptation factors are discussed.

1987
Vopr Onkol 1987; 33(7):57-60, in Russian
Dement'eva LA, Iaremenko KV.

"Effect of a Rhodiola extract on the tumour process in an experiment."
Abstract: Antitumour and antimetastatic effects of an official extract of Rhodiola rosea were established in experiments on inbred and noninbred mice and rats with transplantable NK/Ly tumour, Ehrlich's adenocarcinoma, melanoma B16 and Lewis lung carcinoma. Application of the said preparation to sarcolysin-treated animals was followed by an increase in survival.

1987
Rhodiola Rosea is a Valuable Medicinal Plant. Tomsk: Medical Institute, 1987, 194.
Saratikov, A.S., and E.A. Krasnov.
"The Adaptogenic Attributes of Rhodiola."

1987
Medicinal Plant. Tomsk: Medical Institute, 1987, 91.
Saratikov, A.S.. E.A. Krasnov, and B.Yu. Salnik.
"The Biochemical Mechanism of the Stimulative Action of Rhodiola."

1987
Medicinal Plant. Tomsk: Medical Institute, 1987, 150.
Saratikov A.S., Krasnov E.A., Marina T.F.
"The Influence of Rhodiola on the Central Nervous System."

1987
Med Physiol 1987;40:85-87.
Stancheva SL, Mosharrof A.
"Effect of the extract of Rhodiola rosea L. on the content of the brain biogenic monamines."

1987
Rhodiola Rosea is a Valuable Medicinal Plant. Tomsk: Medical Institute, 1987, 180.
Saratikov A.S., Krasnov E.A.
"The Influence of Rhodiola on the Endocrine Glands and the Liver."

1987
Rhodiola Rosea is a Valuable Medicinal Plant.Tomsk: Medical Institute, 1987, 216.
Saratikov A.S., Krasnov E.A.
"Clinical Studies of Rhodiola."

1987
Tomsk: Medical Institute
Saratikov AS, Krasnov EA
Rhodiola Rosea is a Valuable Medicinal Plant.
Chapter I: Chemical composition. pp3-39
Chapter III: Stimulative properties. pp69-90
Chapter VI: Influence on endocrine glands and the liver. pp180-93
Chapter VII: Adaptogenic properties. pp194-215
Chapter VIII: Clinical studies. pp216-27

1986
Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1986 Sep;8(9):547-52.
Lazarova MB, Petkov VD, Markovska VL, Petkov VV, Mosharrof A.
"Effects of meclofenoxate and Extr. Rhodiolae roseae L. on electroconvulsive shock-impaired learning and memory in rats."
Abstract: In experiments on albino rats, the authors studied the effects of meclofenoxate and Extr. Rhodiolae roseae on the memory-impairing action of convulsant electroshock. "Step-down" passive avoidance training with negative reinforcement was used to trace the changes in memory. Meclofenoxate administered i.p. in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for five days prevented the retrograde amnesia observed after convulsant electroshock upon retention testing on the 3rd and 24th hr after the end of the training session. The Rhodiola extract administered orally in a dose of 0.10 ml/rat for 10 days, which in other experimental approaches improved learning and memory, remained ineffective here. The role of biogenic monoamines in the learning- and memory-improving effects of meclofenoxate is considered on the basis of earlier studies by the authors.

1986
Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg 1986; 12(1): 3-16.
Petkov VD, Yonkov D, Mosharoff A, Kambourova T, Alova L, Petkov VV, Todorov I.
"Effects of alcohol aqueous extract from Rhodiola rosea L. roots on learning and memory."
Abstract: The effect of alcohol-aqueous extract (1:1) from Rhodiola rosea L. roots on the processes of learning and memory is studied on rats. Several methods of active avoidance with negative and positive reinforcements are used, as well as of passive avoidance. Using the maze-method with negative (punitive) reinforcement, it has been found that Rhodiola extract in a single dose of 0.10 ml per rat essentially improves learning and retention after 24 hours. Significant improvement of the long-term memory is also established in memory tests after 10-day treatment with the same dose of the extract. In the other two doses tested (0.02 and 1.0 ml per rat) the extract has no substantial effect on learning and memory. In a dose of 0.10 ml per rat the Rhodiola extract had a favourable effect on the training process using the "staircase" method with positive (food) reinforcement as well. With the other methods used (active avoidance method with negative reinforcement "shuttle-box" and passive avoidance methods "step down" and "step through") Rhodiola extract in the dose used (0.10 ml per rat) had no substantial effect on learning and memory (a certain deterioration of the training process was even observed using the "shuttle-box" method, while the "step-down" method resulted in deterioration of the memory). The great significance of the method used for studying the effects of the pharmacological agents on learning and memory for the results obtained is evident.

1986
Khimiko-Farmatsevticheskii Zhurnal 1986; 20 (10), 1231-1244.
Kurkin, VA., Zapesochnaya GG
"The Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Properties of the Rhodiola Species."

1986
In: Saratikov AS (ed.) Modern problems of pharmacology and search for new medicines. Tomsk State University Press, Tomsk, 1986. pp58-60
Brichenko VS, Kupriyanova IE, Skorokhova TF
The use of herbal adaptogens with tricyclic antidepressants in patients with psychogenic depression.

1985
Novosibirsk. P. 85-114. (1985)
Polozny AV, Revyakina NV, Kim EF, Sviridova TF.
"Rhodiola rosea or Golden root. Biology of Siberian plants requiring protection."

1983
Proceedings of Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Science, 6: 70-77, 1983.
Dementieva LA, Yaremenko KV
"The study of the influence of Rhodiola rosea extract on the growth of tumors in experiment."

1982
J Ethnopharmacol 1982; 6: 339-353.
Baranov AI.

"Medicinal uses of ginseng and related plants in the Soviet Union: recent trends in the Soviet literature."

1981
Stomatologiia (Mosk) (1981 Jan-Feb) 60(1):81-2, in Russian
Frolova GI, Prosandeeva GF, Larionova LV, Maslennikova GV
"Use of a golden root (Rhodiola rosea) tincture in treating periodontosis"

1980
Pharmaceutical Journal 1980; June, 3: 58-60.
Komar VV, Karpulnik ZV, Kit SM, Komar LV, Smolinska VO.
"Macro- and microelement composition of root extracts of Rhodiola rosea."

1980
Farm Zh. 1980 Jun;(3):58-60.
Komar VV, Karpliuk ZV, Kit SM, Komar LV, Smolins'ka VO.
Macro- and microelement composition of root extracts of Rhodiola rosea (golden root)

1978
Plant resources 14 p. 90-92. (1978).
Krasnov EA, Zotova MI, Nekhodova MF
"Simulative effect of Rhodiola rosea."

1978
Health Care, Kazakhstan, 2, 78-79. (1978)
Bender KI, Freidman CL, Bogoslovskaya CN
"Effect of Rhodiola rosea (golden root) and Eleutherococcus on physiological parameters."


1978
Ulan Bator, 1978
Khaidaev Z, Menshikova TA
Medicinal plants in Mongolian medicine.

1974
Moscow, Medicine Press Publisher, 72p. (1974)
Turova AD
"Medicinal plants of the USSR."

1973
Proceedings of Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Science. Biological Sciences, 3: 85-89 (1973).
Marina TF, Alekseeva LP, Plotnikova TM
"The influence of Rhodiola rosea preparation on the spontaneous bioelectric activity and electrographic reactions of the cortex of the Large Hemispheres and Some subcortical structures."

1970
Modern Pharmacology, Kemerovo, Russia, p. 298-300. (1970)
Krasik FD, Morozova ES, Petrova KP
"A new clinical result of anti-stress effect of Rhodiola rosea (Golden root)."

1970
In: Proceedings: Modern problems in psycho-pharmacology, Kemerevo City. Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, 1970. pp298-330
Krasik ED, Morozova ES, et al.
Therapy of asthenic conditions: clinical perspectives of aplication of Rhodiola rosea extract (golden root).

1970
In: Proceedings of the all-Russia conference: Urgent problems in psychopharmacology. Sverdlovsk, 1970. pp 215-17
Krasik ED, Petrova KP, et al.
New data on the therapy of asthenic conditions.
Clinical prospects for the use of Rhodiola extract.

1970
In: Proceedings of Scientific Conference on Endocrinology and Gynaecology. Russian Academy of Science, Siberian branch, Sverdlovsk, 1970. pp46-48
Gerasimova HD
Effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on ovarian functional activity.

1969
Ann Rev Pharmacol 1969; 9: 419-430.
Brekhman II, Dardymov IV.
New substances of plant origin which increase nonspecific resistance.

1969
Pharmazie Feb 1969; 24(2): 118-19.
Thieme H.
"On the Identity of Glucoside Rhodioloside and Salidroside."

1969
Dissertation, Tomsk State Medical Institute, Tomsk, 1969
Adamchuk LB
Effects of Rhodiola on the process of energetic recovery of rat under intense muscular workload.

1969
Dissertation, Tomsk State Medical Institute, Tomsk, 1969
Revina TA
Effect of stimulators of the central nervous system on carbohydrate and high energy phosphylated compound metabolism.

1969
Academic Press, Novosibirsk, 1969. p264
Krylov GV
Herbs for life.

1968
Pharmazie 1968; Jul,23(7): 392-5. in German
Saratikov AS, Krasnov EA, Chnikina LA, Duvidson LM, Sotova MI, Marina TF, Nechoda MF, Axenova RA, Tscherdinzeff SG.
"Rhodiolosid, a new glycoside from Rhodiola rosea and its pharmacological properties."

1968
In: Saratikov AS (ed.), Stinulants of the central nervous system. Tomsk State University Press, Tomsk, 1968, pp22-26
Marina TF, Alekseeva LP
Effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on electroencephalograms in rabbit.

1968
In: Saratikov AS (ed.), Stinulants of the central nervous system. Tomsk State University Press, Tomsk, 1968, pp27-31
Marina TF
Effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on bioelectrical activity of the cerebral cortex isolated to a different extent from the brain.

1968
Dissertation, Tomsk State Medical Institute, Tomsk, 1968
Danbueva EA
Effect of stimulators of the central nervous system on lipid metabolism at different muscular workloads.

1966
Aptechn Delo 1966; Nov-Dec, 15(6): 34-8.
Khnykina LA, Zotova MI
"To the pharmacognostic study of Rhodiola rosea."

1966
In: "Natural stimulators of central nervous system." Tomsk, p. 124-127.
Oleynichenko VF
Effect of Eleutherococcus and Rhodiola rosea (Golden root) on hearing of employees of Tomsk electrochemical factory and pilots at Tomsk International Airport."

1966
In: Saratikov AS, Stimulants of the central nervous system, Vol. I. Tomsk State University Press, Tomsk, 1966, pp3-23
Saratikov AS
Screening for natural central nervous system stimulants.

1964
Boerntraeger, Berlin, 1964. pp199-200 /book/
Engler A
Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

1939 (1971)
Genus 698: Rhodiola L. USSR Academy of Sciences, Leningrad, 1939. (Translation: Jerusalem, 1971. pp20-36)
Komarov VL (ed.)
Flora of the USSR, Vol. IX, Rosales and saraceniales.

1938
Textile Colorist 1938;60(715):483-84
Mell CD

Dyes, tannin, perfumes and medicines from Rhodiola rosea

1749
Liber I: De Plantis Stockholm 1749. pp182-87

Linnaeus C

Materia Medica.

1725
Stockholm 1725. p127
Linnaeus C
Oertabok

J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Nov 25. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on affective and physical signs of nicotine withdrawal in mice.

Mattioli L, Perfumi M.

Department of Experimental Medicine and Public Health, University of Camerino.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a Rhodiola rosea L. extract on the prevention of the development of nicotine dependence and for the reduction of abstinence suffering following nicotine cessation in mice. Dependence was induced in mice by subcutaneous injections of nicotine (2 mg/kg, 4 times/day) for eight days. Spontaneous abstinence syndrome was evaluated 20 h after the last nicotine administration, by analysis of withdrawal signs, as affective (anxiety-like behaviour) and physical (somatic signs and locomotor activity). Rhodiola rosea L. extract was administered orally during nicotine treatment (10, 15 and 20 mg/kg) or during nicotine withdrawal (20 mg/kg). Results show that both affective and somatic signs (head shaking, paw tremors, body tremors, ptosis, jumping, piloerection and chewing) induced by nicotine withdrawal are abolished by administration of Rhodiola rosea L. extract in a dose-dependent fashion, during both nicotine exposure and nicotine cessation. In conclusion, our data encourage additional studies to define the use of R. rosea L. as a therapeutic approach in the treatment of smoking cessation

Chin J Physiol. 2009 Oct 31;52(5):316-24.

Attenuation of long-term Rhodiola rosea supplementation on exhaustive swimming-evoked oxidative stress in the rat.

Huang SC, Lee FT, Kuo TY, Yang JH, Chien CT.

Departments of Cardiology, Kuang-Tien General Hospital, Taichung, Republic of China.

Rhodiola rosea improves exercise endurance and fatigue. We hypothesized that ingredients in Rhodiola rosea may increase antioxidant capability against swimming induced oxidative stress. In this study, we have identified the Rhodiola rosea ingredients, p-tyrosol, salidroside, rosin, rosavin and rosarin by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer and evaluated their O2(-)*, H2O2, and HOCl scavenging activities by a chemiluminescence analyzer. We next explored the effect and mechanism of Rhodiola rosea on 90-min swimming-induced oxidative stress in male Wistar rats fed with three doses of Rhodiola rosea extracts in drinking water (5, 25, 125 mg/day/rat) for 4 weeks. Our results showed that the 4 major ingredients (salidroside, rosin, rosavin and rosarin) from Rhodiola rosea extracts scavenged O2(-)*, H2O2, and HOCl activity in a dose-dependent manner. The ninety-min swimming exercise increased the O2(-)* production in the order: liver > skeletal muscle > blood, indicating that liver is the most sensitive target organ. The level of plasma malonedialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation product, was also increased after exercise. Treatment of 4 weeks of Rhodiola rosea extracts significantly inhibited swimming exercise-enhanced O2(-)* production in the blood, liver and skeletal muscle and plasma malonedialdehyde concentration. The expression in Mn-superoxide dismutase Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, and catalase in livers were all enhanced after 4 weeks of Rhodiola rosea supplementation especially at the dose of 125 mg/day/rat. Treatment of Rhodiola rosea extracts for 4 weeks significantly increased swimming performance. In conclusion, treatment of Rhodiola rosea extracts for 4 weeks could reduce swimming-enhanced oxidative stress possibly via the reactive oxygen species scavenging capability and the enhancement of the antioxidant defense mechanisms.

Biomed Environ Sci. 2009 Aug;22(4):318-26.

Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects.

Qu ZQ, Zhou Y, Zeng YS, Li Y, Chung P.

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Histology and Embryology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pretreatment effects of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) extract on cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress in hippocampus and hippocampal neuron injury in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with R. rosea extract at doses of 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 g/kg for 3 weeks, followed by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection with streptozotocin (1.5 mg/kg) on days 1 and 3. Behavioral alterations were monitored after 2 weeks from the lesion using Morris water maze task. Three weeks after the lesion, the rats were sacrificed for measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reductase (GR) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in hippocampus and histopathology of hippocampal neurons. RESULTS: The MDA level was significantly increased while the GR and GSH levels were significantly decreased with striking impairments in spatial learning and memory and severe damage to hippocampal neurons in the model rat induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. These abnormalities were significantly improved by pretreatment with R. rosea extract (3.0 g/kg). CONCLUSION: R. rosea extract can protect rats against cognitive deficits, neuronal injury and oxidative stress induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin, and may be used as a potential agent in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

PMID: 19950527 [PubMed - in process]

Biomed Environ Sci. 2009 Aug;22(4):318-26.

Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects.

Qu ZQ, Zhou Y, Zeng YS, Li Y, Chung P.

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Histology and Embryology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pretreatment effects of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) extract on cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress in hippocampus and hippocampal neuron injury in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with R. rosea extract at doses of 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 g/kg for 3 weeks, followed by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection with streptozotocin (1.5 mg/kg) on days 1 and 3. Behavioral alterations were monitored after 2 weeks from the lesion using Morris water maze task. Three weeks after the lesion, the rats were sacrificed for measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reductase (GR) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in hippocampus and histopathology of hippocampal neurons. RESULTS: The MDA level was significantly increased while the GR and GSH levels were significantly decreased with striking impairments in spatial learning and memory and severe damage to hippocampal neurons in the model rat induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. These abnormalities were significantly improved by pretreatment with R. rosea extract (3.0 g/kg). CONCLUSION: R. rosea extract can protect rats against cognitive deficits, neuronal injury and oxidative stress induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin, and may be used as a potential agent in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

PMID: 19950527 [PubMed - in process]

Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2009 Nov-Dec;72(6):52-6.

[Therapeutic potential of ginseng root preparations in treating diabetes mellitus]

[Article in Russian]

[No authors listed]

Biologically active substances of some medicinal plants (ginseng, rhodiola, eleutherococcus, etc.) classified as adaptogens possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. In additional to influencing the central nervous system (antistressor, psychotonic, and nootropic effects), these substances also affect various internal organs. The present review of published data shows that, in particular, ginseng root preparations possess pronounced antidiabetic properties and, hence, can be more widely used in clinical endocrinology.

Planta Med. 2009 Sep 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Potent in vitro Inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-Glycoprotein by Rhodiola rosea.

Hellum BH, Tosse A, Hoybakk K, Thomsen M, Rohloff J, Georg Nilsen O.

Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

Six clones of RHODIOLA ROSEA, obtained from plants originating from widely different areas in Norway, were investigated for their IN VITRO inhibitory potential on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-gp efflux transport activity. Presumed active constituents in the ethanol extracts of the different clones were quantified. C-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP3A4 and Caco-2 cells were used for inhibitory assays, and as positive control inhibitors ketoconazole and verapamil were applied, respectively. A validated HPLC methodology was used to quantify the formation of 6-beta-OH-testosterone and scintillation counting was used to quantify the transport of (3)H-digoxin in Caco-2 cells. All clones showed potent inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp activities, with IC (50) values ranging from 1.7 to 3.1 microg/mL and from 16.7 to 51.7 microg/mL, respectively, being below that reported for other herbs and some known classic drug inhibitors, such as St. John's wort and fluoxetine. RHODIOLA ROSEA might thus be a candidate for clinically relevant drug interactions. The concentration of presumed biologically active constituents in the different clones varied considerably, but this variation was not related to the clones' inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 or P-gp activities. Other constituents might thus be responsible for the observed inhibitory properties. The place of origin seemed to be of minor importance for CYP3A4 or P-gp inhibition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

Nat Prod Commun. 2009 Aug;4(8):1053-8.

Phytochemical characterization of an adaptogenic preparation from Rhodiola heterodonta.

Grace MH, Yousef GG, Kurmukov AG, Raskin I, Lila MA.

Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

The phytochemical constituents of a biologically active, standardized, 80% ethanol extract of Rhodiola heterodonta were characterized. The extract was fractionated over a Sephadex LH-20 column to afford two main fractions representing two classes of secondary metabolites: phenylethanoids and proanthocyanidins. This fractionation facilitated the identification and quantification of individual compounds in the fractions and sub-fractions using HPLC, and LC-MS. The major compounds in the phenylethanoid fraction were heterodontoside, tyrosol methyl ether, salidroside, viridoside, mongrhoside, tyrosol, and the cyanogenic glucoside rhodiocyanoside A. These seven compounds comprised 17.4% of the EtOH extract. Proanthocyanidins ranged from oligomers to polymers based on epigallocatechin and gallate units. The main identified oligomeric compounds in the proanthocyanidin fraction were epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate and 3-O-galloyl-epigallocatechin-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, which constituted 1.75% of the ethanol extract. Tyrosol methyl ether, mongrhoside, and the two proanthocyanidin dimers were reported for the first time from this species in this study. Intraperitoneal injection of the 80% ethanol extract increased survival time of mice under hypoxia by 192%, as an indication of adaptogenic activity.

PMID: 19768982 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Am J Chin Med. 2009;37(3):557-72.

Chronic Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation enforces exhaustive swimming tolerance.

Lee FT, Kuo TY, Liou SY, Chien CT.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kuang-Tien General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

We explored the effects and mechanisms of Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation on swimming-induced fatigue in rats. The concentrations of active components in Rhodiola rosea have been determined by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer. The Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation in water for 2-4 weeks was evaluated in male Wistar rats with 90-min unloaded swimming exercise and 5% body weight loaded swimming up to fatigue. We measured the fatigue biomarkers, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hepatic glycogen content, the activity of fat metabolism enzymes, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), the tissue oxygen content and ratio of red and white skeletal muscle fibers in rats. Rhodiola rosea significantly increased liver glycogen, SREBP-1, FAS, heat shock protein 70 expression, Bcl-2/Bax ratio and oxygen content before swimming. Rhodiola rosea supplementation significantly increased the swimming time in a dose-dependent manner and reduced swimming-enhanced serum BUN, GOT and GPT levels. The ratio of red and white muscle fibers was not altered after chronic Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation. Chronic Rhodiola rosea supplementation significantly improved exhaustive swimming-induced fatigue by the increased glycogen content, energy supply of lipogenic enzyme expressions and protective defense mechanisms. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009 Apr;19(2):186-99.

The influence of supplementation with Rhodiola rosea L. extract on selected redox parameters in professional rowers.

Skarpanska-Stejnborn A, Pilaczynska-Szczesniak L, Basta P, Deskur-Smielecka E.

Department of Water Sports, University School of Physical Education, Poznan, Poland.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Rhodiola rosea supplementation on the balance of oxidants and antioxidants in the serum and erythrocytes of competitive rowers. This double-blinded study included 22 members of the Polish Rowing Team who were participating in a preparatory camp. Participants were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 11), who received 100 mg of R. rosea extract twice daily for 4 wk, or the placebo group (n = 11). At the beginning and end of the study, participants performed a 2,000-m maximum test on a rowing ergometer. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein before each exercise test, 1 min after completing the test, and after a 24-hr restitution period. The following redox parameters were assessed in erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances concentrations. In addition, creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and uric acid concentrations were measured in serum. After supplementation, the total plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly higher (p = .0002) in the supplemented group than in the placebo group, and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes directly after and 24 hr after the ergometry was significantly (p = .0461) lower in athletes receiving R. rosea extracts than in the placebo group. In conclusion, supplementation with R. rosea increased antioxidant levels in the plasma of professional rowers but had no effect on oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise.

Planta Med. 2009 Sep;75(11):1187-90. Epub 2009 May 25.

Perspective on Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea) studies.

Blomkvist J, Taube A, Larhammar D.

Department of Neuroscience, Unit of Pharmacology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Rhodiola rosea (roseroot) extract is a commercially successful product, primarily used to reduce the effect of fatigue on physical and mental performance. In this perspective we present our investigation of the most recent studies performed on human subjects. With a focus on the statistical methods we found considerable shortcomings in all but one of the studies that claim significant improvement from roseroot extract. Overall, the study designs have not been well explained. Experimental results have been confused and appear to be in some cases incorrect. Some of the conclusions are based on selected results and contradicting data have not been adequately taken into account. We point to other studies of higher quality performed on roseroot, several that found no significant effect and one that did. We conclude that the currently available evidence for the claimed effects is insufficient and that the effect of Rhodiola rosea is in need of further investigation before therapeutic claims can be made.

Planta Med. 2009 Sep;75(11):1187-90. Epub 2009 May 25.

Perspective on Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea) studies.

Blomkvist J, Taube A, Larhammar D.

Department of Neuroscience, Unit of Pharmacology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Rhodiola rosea (roseroot) extract is a commercially successful product, primarily used to reduce the effect of fatigue on physical and mental performance. In this perspective we present our investigation of the most recent studies performed on human subjects. With a focus on the statistical methods we found considerable shortcomings in all but one of the studies that claim significant improvement from roseroot extract. Overall, the study designs have not been well explained. Experimental results have been confused and appear to be in some cases incorrect. Some of the conclusions are based on selected results and contradicting data have not been adequately taken into account. We point to other studies of higher quality performed on roseroot, several that found no significant effect and one that did. We conclude that the currently available evidence for the claimed effects is insufficient and that the effect of Rhodiola rosea is in need of further investigation before therapeutic claims can be made.

Rhodiola Boosts Sports Performance

Posted in News, Adaptogen, Research, Sports Nutrition

ROME—Competitive athletes may realize enhanced performance and recovery from chronic consumption of the adaptogen Rhodiola rosea, according to a new study (J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2010 Mar;50(1):57-63). Researchers from the University of Rome investigated the impact of chronic Rhodiola rosea supplementation on physical performance and redox status in 14 trained male athletes. After four weeks of supplementation, the subjects underwent a cardio-pulmonary exhaustion test and blood samples were taken to evaluate antioxidant status and other biochemical parameters. While supplementation did not impact VO2 max, heart rate or exercise duration, it did significantly reduce plasma free fatty acid levels. In addition, while blood antioxidant status and inflammatory markers were unchanged after Rhodiola consumption, the intervention did result in significantly lower levels of blood lactate and plasma creatine kinase. The researchers concluded chronic Rhodiola supplementation could reduce parameters of skeletal muscle damage after exhaustive exercise and ameliorate fatty acid consumption, ultimately increasing the body’s ability to adapt to physical exercise.


Antioxidative researches on Rhodiola rosea:

Abidov, M., Crendal, F., Grachev, S., Seifulla, R.D., Ziegenfuss, T.N. 2003.  Effect of extracts from Rhodiola rosea and R. crenulata (Crassualcae) roots on ATP content in mithochondria of skeletal muscles. Bull. Exp. Biol. med. 136 (6): 585-587.

Boon-Niermeijer, E.K., van den Berg, A., Wikman, G., Wiegant, F.A. 2000.  Phyto-adaptogens protect against environmental stress-indiced death of embrios from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Phytomedicine. 7(5): 389-99.

DeSanctis, R., De Bellis, R., Sceca, C., Mancini, U., Cucchiarini, L., Dacha, M. 2004. In vitro protective effect of Rhodiola rosea extract against hyposhlorous acid-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocydes. Biofactors. 20(3): 147-159.

Wing, S.,L., Askew, E., W., Luetkemeier, M. J., Ryujin, D.T., Kamimori, G.H., Grissom, C.K. 2003. Lack of effect of Rhodiola or oxygenated water supplementation on hypoxemia and oxidative stress. Wilderness Environ. Med. 14(1): 9-16.

Modern reviews on Rhodiola and adaptogen plants.

Brown, R.P., Gerbard,P.L., Ramazanov,Z. 2002. Rhodiola rosea. A Phytomedicinal Overview. HerbalGram 56: 40-52. The Journal of the American Botanic Council.    >>>>>92 references !

Walker, T.B., Robert, A. Robergs, 2006.  Does Rhodiola Rosea Possess Ergogenic Properties? Int. Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 16: 305-315.  >>>>>>31 references !

Panossian, A., Wagner, H. 2005.  Stimulating Effect of Adaptogens : An Overview with Particular Reference  to their Efficacy following Single Dose Administration. Phytotherapy Research. 19 :819-838. >>>>  90 references

 

Swissmedic registriertes Rhodiola Produkt: Erhältlich in Apotheken und Drogerien